Global Radiant Tube Heaters Market Research Report 2017 Opportunities, Product Types, Applications, Forecast to 2022

Request for a SAMPLE REPORT

Fill up your details below and get the sample report for FREE

 Published Date : Dec-2017   |    Format :PDF   |    Number of Pages : 112
This report studies Radiant Tube Heaters in Global market, especially in North America, China, Europe, Southeast Asia, Japan and India, with production, revenue, consumption, import and export in these regions, from 2012 to 2016, and forecast to 2022.

This report focuses on top manufacturers in global market, with production, price, revenue and market share for each manufacturer, covering
    Schwank
    Space-Ray (GFP)
    Brant Radiant Heaters
    Solaronics, Inc.
    FarmTek
    Reznor
    Superior Radiant Products
    Superior Radiant Product
    LB White
    SunStar Heating Products, Inc.
    Roberts Gordon
    Powrmatic
    Hevac

On the basis of product, this report displays the production, revenue, price, market share and growth rate of each type, primarily split into
    Tube Heaters
    Patio Heaters
    Infrared Gas Heaters

By Application, the market can be split into
    Industrial
    Commerical
    Residential

By Regions, this report covers (we can add the regions/countries as you want)
    North America
    China
    Europe
    Southeast Asia
    Japan
    India

If you have any special requirements, please let us know and we will offer you the report as you want.

Global Radiant Tube Heaters Market Professional Survey Report 2017
1 Industry Overview of Radiant Tube Heaters
    1.1 Definition and Specifications of Radiant Tube Heaters
        1.1.1 Definition of Radiant Tube Heaters
        1.1.2 Specifications of Radiant Tube Heaters
    1.2 Classification of Radiant Tube Heaters
        1.2.1 Tube Heaters
        1.2.2 Patio Heaters
        1.2.3 Infrared Gas Heaters
    1.3 Applications of Radiant Tube Heaters
        1.3.1 Industrial
        1.3.2 Commerical
        1.3.3 Residential
    1.4 Market Segment by Regions
        1.4.1 North America
        1.4.2 China
        1.4.3 Europe
        1.4.4 Southeast Asia
        1.4.5 Japan
        1.4.6 India

2 Manufacturing Cost Structure Analysis of Radiant Tube Heaters
    2.1 Raw Material and Suppliers
    2.2 Manufacturing Cost Structure Analysis of Radiant Tube Heaters
    2.3 Manufacturing Process Analysis of Radiant Tube Heaters
    2.4 Industry Chain Structure of Radiant Tube Heaters

3 Technical Data and Manufacturing Plants Analysis of Radiant Tube Heaters
    3.1 Capacity and Commercial Production Date of Global Radiant Tube Heaters Major Manufacturers in 2016
    3.2 Manufacturing Plants Distribution of Global Radiant Tube Heaters Major Manufacturers in 2016
    3.3 R&D Status and Technology Source of Global Radiant Tube Heaters Major Manufacturers in 2016
    3.4 Raw Materials Sources Analysis of Global Radiant Tube Heaters Major Manufacturers in 2016

4 Global Radiant Tube Heaters Overall Market Overview
    4.1 2012-2017E Overall Market Analysis
    4.2 Capacity Analysis
        4.2.1 2012-2017E Global Radiant Tube Heaters Capacity and Growth Rate Analysis
        4.2.2 2016 Radiant Tube Heaters Capacity Analysis (Company Segment)
    4.3 Sales Analysis
        4.3.1 2012-2017E Global Radiant Tube Heaters Sales and Growth Rate Analysis
        4.3.2 2016 Radiant Tube Heaters Sales Analysis (Company Segment)
    4.4 Sales Price Analysis
        4.4.1 2012-2017E Global Radiant Tube Heaters Sales Price
        4.4.2 2016 Radiant Tube Heaters Sales Price Analysis (Company Segment)

5 Radiant Tube Heaters Regional Market Analysis
    5.1 North America Radiant Tube Heaters Market Analysis
        5.1.1 North America Radiant Tube Heaters Market Overview
        5.1.2 North America 2012-2017E Radiant Tube Heaters Local Supply, Import, Export, Local Consumption Analysis
        5.1.3 North America 2012-2017E Radiant Tube Heaters Sales Price Analysis
        5.1.4 North America 2016 Radiant Tube Heaters Market Share Analysis
    5.2 China Radiant Tube Heaters Market Analysis
        5.2.1 China Radiant Tube Heaters Market Overview
        5.2.2 China 2012-2017E Radiant Tube Heaters Local Supply, Import, Export, Local Consumption Analysis
        5.2.3 China 2012-2017E Radiant Tube Heaters Sales Price Analysis
        5.2.4 China 2016 Radiant Tube Heaters Market Share Analysis
    5.3 Europe Radiant Tube Heaters Market Analysis
        5.3.1 Europe Radiant Tube Heaters Market Overview
        5.3.2 Europe 2012-2017E Radiant Tube Heaters Local Supply, Import, Export, Local Consumption Analysis
        5.3.3 Europe 2012-2017E Radiant Tube Heaters Sales Price Analysis
        5.3.4 Europe 2016 Radiant Tube Heaters Market Share Analysis
    5.4 Southeast Asia Radiant Tube Heaters Market Analysis
        5.4.1 Southeast Asia Radiant Tube Heaters Market Overview
        5.4.2 Southeast Asia 2012-2017E Radiant Tube Heaters Local Supply, Import, Export, Local Consumption Analysis
        5.4.3 Southeast Asia 2012-2017E Radiant Tube Heaters Sales Price Analysis
        5.4.4 Southeast Asia 2016 Radiant Tube Heaters Market Share Analysis
    5.5 Japan Radiant Tube Heaters Market Analysis
        5.5.1 Japan Radiant Tube Heaters Market Overview
        5.5.2 Japan 2012-2017E Radiant Tube Heaters Local Supply, Import, Export, Local Consumption Analysis
        5.5.3 Japan 2012-2017E Radiant Tube Heaters Sales Price Analysis
        5.5.4 Japan 2016 Radiant Tube Heaters Market Share Analysis
    5.6 India Radiant Tube Heaters Market Analysis
        5.6.1 India Radiant Tube Heaters Market Overview
        5.6.2 India 2012-2017E Radiant Tube Heaters Local Supply, Import, Export, Local Consumption Analysis
        5.6.3 India 2012-2017E Radiant Tube Heaters Sales Price Analysis
        5.6.4 India 2016 Radiant Tube Heaters Market Share Analysis

6 Global 2012-2017E Radiant Tube Heaters Segment Market Analysis (by Type)
    6.1 Global 2012-2017E Radiant Tube Heaters Sales by Type
    6.2 Different Types of Radiant Tube Heaters Product Interview Price Analysis
    6.3 Different Types of Radiant Tube Heaters Product Driving Factors Analysis
        6.3.1 Tube Heaters of Radiant Tube Heaters Growth Driving Factor Analysis
        6.3.2 Patio Heaters of Radiant Tube Heaters Growth Driving Factor Analysis
        6.3.3 Infrared Gas Heaters of Radiant Tube Heaters Growth Driving Factor Analysis

7 Global 2012-2017E Radiant Tube Heaters Segment Market Analysis (by Application)
    7.1 Global 2012-2017E Radiant Tube Heaters Consumption by Application
    7.2 Different Application of Radiant Tube Heaters Product Interview Price Analysis
    7.3 Different Application of Radiant Tube Heaters Product Driving Factors Analysis
        7.3.1 Industrial of Radiant Tube Heaters Growth Driving Factor Analysis
        7.3.2 Commerical of Radiant Tube Heaters Growth Driving Factor Analysis
        7.3.3 Residential of Radiant Tube Heaters Growth Driving Factor Analysis

8 Major Manufacturers Analysis of Radiant Tube Heaters
    8.1 Schwank
        8.1.1 Company Profile
        8.1.2 Product Picture and Specifications
            8.1.2.1 Product A
            8.1.2.2 Product B
        8.1.3 Schwank 2016 Radiant Tube Heaters Sales, Ex-factory Price, Revenue, Gross Margin Analysis
        8.1.4 Schwank 2016 Radiant Tube Heaters Business Region Distribution Analysis
    8.2 Space-Ray (GFP)
        8.2.1 Company Profile
        8.2.2 Product Picture and Specifications
            8.2.2.1 Product A
            8.2.2.2 Product B
        8.2.3 Space-Ray (GFP) 2016 Radiant Tube Heaters Sales, Ex-factory Price, Revenue, Gross Margin Analysis
        8.2.4 Space-Ray (GFP) 2016 Radiant Tube Heaters Business Region Distribution Analysis
    8.3 Brant Radiant Heaters
        8.3.1 Company Profile
        8.3.2 Product Picture and Specifications
            8.3.2.1 Product A
            8.3.2.2 Product B
        8.3.3 Brant Radiant Heaters 2016 Radiant Tube Heaters Sales, Ex-factory Price, Revenue, Gross Margin Analysis
        8.3.4 Brant Radiant Heaters 2016 Radiant Tube Heaters Business Region Distribution Analysis
    8.4 Solaronics, Inc.
        8.4.1 Company Profile
        8.4.2 Product Picture and Specifications
            8.4.2.1 Product A
            8.4.2.2 Product B
        8.4.3 Solaronics, Inc. 2016 Radiant Tube Heaters Sales, Ex-factory Price, Revenue, Gross Margin Analysis
        8.4.4 Solaronics, Inc. 2016 Radiant Tube Heaters Business Region Distribution Analysis
    8.5 FarmTek
        8.5.1 Company Profile
        8.5.2 Product Picture and Specifications
            8.5.2.1 Product A
            8.5.2.2 Product B
        8.5.3 FarmTek 2016 Radiant Tube Heaters Sales, Ex-factory Price, Revenue, Gross Margin Analysis
        8.5.4 FarmTek 2016 Radiant Tube Heaters Business Region Distribution Analysis
    8.6 Reznor
        8.6.1 Company Profile
        8.6.2 Product Picture and Specifications
            8.6.2.1 Product A
            8.6.2.2 Product B
        8.6.3 Reznor 2016 Radiant Tube Heaters Sales, Ex-factory Price, Revenue, Gross Margin Analysis
        8.6.4 Reznor 2016 Radiant Tube Heaters Business Region Distribution Analysis
    8.7 Superior Radiant Products
        8.7.1 Company Profile
        8.7.2 Product Picture and Specifications
            8.7.2.1 Product A
            8.7.2.2 Product B
        8.7.3 Superior Radiant Products 2016 Radiant Tube Heaters Sales, Ex-factory Price, Revenue, Gross Margin Analysis
        8.7.4 Superior Radiant Products 2016 Radiant Tube Heaters Business Region Distribution Analysis
    8.8 Superior Radiant Product
        8.8.1 Company Profile
        8.8.2 Product Picture and Specifications
            8.8.2.1 Product A
            8.8.2.2 Product B
        8.8.3 Superior Radiant Product 2016 Radiant Tube Heaters Sales, Ex-factory Price, Revenue, Gross Margin Analysis
        8.8.4 Superior Radiant Product 2016 Radiant Tube Heaters Business Region Distribution Analysis
    8.9 LB White
        8.9.1 Company Profile
        8.9.2 Product Picture and Specifications
            8.9.2.1 Product A
            8.9.2.2 Product B
        8.9.3 LB White 2016 Radiant Tube Heaters Sales, Ex-factory Price, Revenue, Gross Margin Analysis
        8.9.4 LB White 2016 Radiant Tube Heaters Business Region Distribution Analysis
    8.10 SunStar Heating Products, Inc.
        8.10.1 Company Profile
        8.10.2 Product Picture and Specifications
            8.10.2.1 Product A
            8.10.2.2 Product B
        8.10.3 SunStar Heating Products, Inc. 2016 Radiant Tube Heaters Sales, Ex-factory Price, Revenue, Gross Margin Analysis
        8.10.4 SunStar Heating Products, Inc. 2016 Radiant Tube Heaters Business Region Distribution Analysis
    8.11 Roberts Gordon
    8.12 Powrmatic
    8.13 Hevac

9 Development Trend of Analysis of Radiant Tube Heaters Market
    9.1 Global Radiant Tube Heaters Market Trend Analysis
        9.1.1 Global 2017-2022 Radiant Tube Heaters Market Size (Volume and Value) Forecast
        9.1.2 Global 2017-2022 Radiant Tube Heaters Sales Price Forecast
    9.2 Radiant Tube Heaters Regional Market Trend
        9.2.1 North America 2017-2022 Radiant Tube Heaters Consumption Forecast
        9.2.2 China 2017-2022 Radiant Tube Heaters Consumption Forecast
        9.2.3 Europe 2017-2022 Radiant Tube Heaters Consumption Forecast
        9.2.4 Southeast Asia 2017-2022 Radiant Tube Heaters Consumption Forecast
        9.2.5 Japan 2017-2022 Radiant Tube Heaters Consumption Forecast
        9.2.6 India 2017-2022 Radiant Tube Heaters Consumption Forecast
    9.3 Radiant Tube Heaters Market Trend (Product Type)
    9.4 Radiant Tube Heaters Market Trend (Application)

10 Radiant Tube Heaters Marketing Type Analysis
    10.1 Radiant Tube Heaters Regional Marketing Type Analysis
    10.2 Radiant Tube Heaters International Trade Type Analysis
    10.3 Traders or Distributors with Contact Information of Radiant Tube Heaters by Region
    10.4 Radiant Tube Heaters Supply Chain Analysis

11 Consumers Analysis of Radiant Tube Heaters
    11.1 Consumer 1 Analysis
    11.2 Consumer 2 Analysis
    11.3 Consumer 3 Analysis
    11.4 Consumer 4 Analysis

12 Conclusion of the Global Radiant Tube Heaters Market Professional Survey Report 2017
    Methodology
    Analyst Introduction
    Data Source


List of Tables and Figures
    Figure Picture of Radiant Tube Heaters
    Table Product Specifications of Radiant Tube Heaters
    Table Classification of Radiant Tube Heaters
    Figure Global Production Market Share of Radiant Tube Heaters by Type in 2016
    Figure Tube Heaters Picture
    Table Major Manufacturers of Tube Heaters
    Figure Patio Heaters Picture
    Table Major Manufacturers of Patio Heaters
    Figure Infrared Gas Heaters Picture
    Table Major Manufacturers of Infrared Gas Heaters
    Table Applications of Radiant Tube Heaters
    Figure Global Consumption Volume Market Share of Radiant Tube Heaters by Application in 2016
    Figure Industrial Examples
    Table Major Consumers in Industrial
    Figure Commerical Examples
    Table Major Consumers in Commerical
    Figure Residential Examples
    Table Major Consumers in Residential
    Figure Market Share of Radiant Tube Heaters by Regions
    Figure North America Radiant Tube Heaters Market Size (Million USD) (2012-2022)
    Figure China Radiant Tube Heaters Market Size (Million USD) (2012-2022)
    Figure Europe Radiant Tube Heaters Market Size (Million USD) (2012-2022)
    Figure Southeast Asia Radiant Tube Heaters Market Size (Million USD) (2012-2022)
    Figure Japan Radiant Tube Heaters Market Size (Million USD) (2012-2022)
    Figure India Radiant Tube Heaters Market Size (Million USD) (2012-2022)
    Table Radiant Tube Heaters Raw Material and Suppliers
    Table Manufacturing Cost Structure Analysis of Radiant Tube Heaters in 2016
    Figure Manufacturing Process Analysis of Radiant Tube Heaters
    Figure Industry Chain Structure of Radiant Tube Heaters
    Table Capacity and Commercial Production Date of Global Radiant Tube Heaters Major Manufacturers in 2016
    Table Manufacturing Plants Distribution of Global Radiant Tube Heaters Major Manufacturers in 2016
    Table R&D Status and Technology Source of Global Radiant Tube Heaters Major Manufacturers in 2016
    Table Raw Materials Sources Analysis of Global Radiant Tube Heaters Major Manufacturers in 2016
    Table Global Capacity, Sales , Price, Cost, Sales Revenue (M USD) and Gross Margin of Radiant Tube Heaters 2012-2017
    Figure Global 2012-2017E Radiant Tube Heaters Market Size (Volume) and Growth Rate
    Figure Global 2012-2017E Radiant Tube Heaters Market Size (Value) and Growth Rate
    Table 2012-2017E Global Radiant Tube Heaters Capacity and Growth Rate
    Table 2016 Global Radiant Tube Heaters Capacity (K Units) List (Company Segment)
    Table 2012-2017E Global Radiant Tube Heaters Sales (K Units) and Growth Rate
    Table 2016 Global Radiant Tube Heaters Sales (K Units) List (Company Segment)
    Table 2012-2017E Global Radiant Tube Heaters Sales Price (USD/Unit)
    Table 2016 Global Radiant Tube Heaters Sales Price (USD/Unit) List (Company Segment)
    Figure North America Capacity Overview
    Table North America Supply, Import, Export and Consumption (K Units) of Radiant Tube Heaters 2012-2017E 
    Figure North America 2012-2017E Radiant Tube Heaters Sales Price (USD/Unit)
    Figure North America 2016 Radiant Tube Heaters Sales Market Share
    Figure China Capacity Overview
    Table China Supply, Import, Export and Consumption (K Units) of Radiant Tube Heaters 2012-2017E 
    Figure China 2012-2017E Radiant Tube Heaters Sales Price (USD/Unit) 
    Figure China 2016 Radiant Tube Heaters Sales Market Share
    Figure Europe Capacity Overview
    Table Europe Supply, Import, Export and Consumption (K Units) of Radiant Tube Heaters 2012-2017E
    Figure Europe 2012-2017E Radiant Tube Heaters Sales Price (USD/Unit)
    Figure Europe 2016 Radiant Tube Heaters Sales Market Share
    Figure Southeast Asia Capacity Overview
    Table Southeast Asia Supply, Import, Export and Consumption (K Units) of Radiant Tube Heaters 2012-2017E
    Figure Southeast Asia 2012-2017E Radiant Tube Heaters Sales Price (USD/Unit)
    Figure Southeast Asia 2016 Radiant Tube Heaters Sales Market Share
    Figure Japan Capacity Overview
    Table Japan Supply, Import, Export and Consumption (K Units) of Radiant Tube Heaters 2012-2017E
    Figure Japan 2012-2017E Radiant Tube Heaters Sales Price (USD/Unit)
    Figure Japan 2016 Radiant Tube Heaters Sales Market Share
    Figure India Capacity Overview
    Table India Supply, Import, Export and Consumption (K Units) of Radiant Tube Heaters 2012-2017E
    Figure India 2012-2017E Radiant Tube Heaters Sales Price (USD/Unit)
    Figure India 2016 Radiant Tube Heaters Sales Market Share
    Table Global 2012-2017E Radiant Tube Heaters Sales (K Units) by Type
    Table Different Types Radiant Tube Heaters Product Interview Price
    Table Global 2012-2017E Radiant Tube Heaters Sales (K Units) by Application
    Table Different Application Radiant Tube Heaters Product Interview Price
    Table Schwank Information List
    Table Product A Overview
    Table Product B Overview
    Table 2016 Schwank Radiant Tube Heaters Revenue (Million USD), Sales (K Units), Ex-factory Price (USD/Unit)
    Figure 2016 Schwank Radiant Tube Heaters Business Region Distribution
    Table Space-Ray (GFP) Information List
    Table Product A Overview
    Table Product B Overview
    Table 2016 Space-Ray (GFP) Radiant Tube Heaters Revenue (Million USD), Sales (K Units), Ex-factory Price (USD/Unit)
    Figure 2016 Space-Ray (GFP) Radiant Tube Heaters Business Region Distribution
    Table Brant Radiant Heaters Information List
    Table Product A Overview
    Table Product B Overview
    Table 2015 Brant Radiant Heaters Radiant Tube Heaters Revenue (Million USD), Sales (K Units), Ex-factory Price (USD/Unit)
    Figure 2016 Brant Radiant Heaters Radiant Tube Heaters Business Region Distribution
    Table Solaronics, Inc. Information List
    Table Product A Overview
    Table Product B Overview
    Table 2016 Solaronics, Inc. Radiant Tube Heaters Revenue (Million USD), Sales (K Units), Ex-factory Price (USD/Unit)
    Figure 2016 Solaronics, Inc. Radiant Tube Heaters Business Region Distribution
    Table FarmTek Information List
    Table Product A Overview
    Table Product B Overview
    Table 2016 FarmTek Radiant Tube Heaters Revenue (Million USD), Sales (K Units), Ex-factory Price (USD/Unit)
    Figure 2016 FarmTek Radiant Tube Heaters Business Region Distribution
    Table Reznor Information List
    Table Product A Overview
    Table Product B Overview
    Table 2016 Reznor Radiant Tube Heaters Revenue (Million USD), Sales (K Units), Ex-factory Price (USD/Unit)
    Figure 2016 Reznor Radiant Tube Heaters Business Region Distribution
    Table Superior Radiant Products Information List
    Table Product A Overview
    Table Product B Overview
    Table 2016 Superior Radiant Products Radiant Tube Heaters Revenue (Million USD), Sales (K Units), Ex-factory Price (USD/Unit)
    Figure 2016 Superior Radiant Products Radiant Tube Heaters Business Region Distribution
    Table Superior Radiant Product Information List
    Table Product A Overview
    Table Product B Overview
    Table 2016 Superior Radiant Product Radiant Tube Heaters Revenue (Million USD), Sales (K Units), Ex-factory Price (USD/Unit)
    Figure 2016 Superior Radiant Product Radiant Tube Heaters Business Region Distribution
    Table LB White Information List
    Table Product A Overview
    Table Product B Overview
    Table 2016 LB White Radiant Tube Heaters Revenue (Million USD), Sales (K Units), Ex-factory Price (USD/Unit)
    Figure 2016 LB White Radiant Tube Heaters Business Region Distribution
    Table SunStar Heating Products, Inc. Information List
    Table Product A Overview
    Table Product B Overview
    Table 2016 SunStar Heating Products, Inc. Radiant Tube Heaters Revenue (Million USD), Sales (K Units), Ex-factory Price (USD/Unit)
    Figure 2016 SunStar Heating Products, Inc. Radiant Tube Heaters Business Region Distribution
    Table Roberts Gordon Information List
    Table Powrmatic Information List
    Table Hevac Information List
    Figure Global 2017-2022 Radiant Tube Heaters Market Size (K Units) and Growth Rate Forecast
    Figure Global 2017-2022 Radiant Tube Heaters Market Size (Million USD) and Growth Rate Forecast
    Figure Global 2017-2022 Radiant Tube Heaters Sales Price (USD/Unit) Forecast
    Figure North America 2017-2022 Radiant Tube Heaters Consumption Volume (K Units) and Growth Rate Forecast
    Figure China 2017-2022 Radiant Tube Heaters Consumption Volume (K Units) and Growth Rate Forecast
    Figure Europe 2017-2022 Radiant Tube Heaters Consumption Volume (K Units) and Growth Rate Forecast
    Figure Southeast Asia 2017-2022 Radiant Tube Heaters Consumption Volume (K Units) and Growth Rate Forecast
    Figure Japan 2017-2022 Radiant Tube Heaters Consumption Volume (K Units) and Growth Rate Forecast
    Figure India 2017-2022 Radiant Tube Heaters Consumption Volume (K Units) and Growth Rate Forecast
    Table Global Sales Volume (K Units) of Radiant Tube Heaters by Type 2017-2022
    Table Global Consumption Volume (K Units) of Radiant Tube Heaters by Application 2017-2022
    Table Traders or Distributors with Contact Information of Radiant Tube Heaters by Region



Latest News

25-Feb-2019 | Medical Devices

Launch Of Symjepi Epinephrine Syringe To Boost The Syringe Market Growth In US

A rising burden of chronic diseases has been observed all across the world, which, in turn, has elevated the usage of syringes. Overall, the global syringe market is anticipated to observe vigorous ...

25-Feb-2019 | Electrical & Electronic Device

Launch Of Xiaomi Set-Top Box To Power The Global 4K Set-Top Box Market

While smart TVs are turning out to be much more widespread these days, a number of consumers still choose to opt for normal TVs and then employ smart streaming set top box with them. Popular choice ...

13-Feb-2019 | Software

Bioinspired Artificial Bug Eye Creation Is A Baton For Global Autonomous Car Market

After looking at the different eye lens structures of the animals and humans, the researchers have decided on creating a sharp image using its design. The compound eyes of the bugs are currently be ...

13-Feb-2019 | Consumer Goods & Retailing

Cafe X’s $12 Million “Seed-1” Round To Boost The Global Coffee Market

Cafe X, a company engaged in building robot baristas, is about to raise a $12 Million “Seed-1” round. Recently, Crunchbase News broke the story when it came across regulatory f ...

05-Feb-2019 | Chemicals & Materials

Clinically Produced Cells Change The Horizon Of Global Bone Cement And Glue Market

The group of researchers from the New York Stem Cell Foundation Research Institute published an article in Stem Cell Research and Therapy where the details regarding the clinical ...