Global Laser Scanning Confocal Microscopy Market Research Report 2018 Opportunities, Business Strategies, Cost Structure, Service Provider, Product Segmentation, Shares, Forecast to 2023

Request for a SAMPLE REPORT

Fill up your details below and get the sample report for FREE

 Published Date : Jan-2018   |    Format :PDF   |    Number of Pages : 104
This report studies Laser Scanning Confocal Microscopy in Global market, especially in North America, China, Europe, Southeast Asia, Japan and India, with production, revenue, consumption, import and export in these regions, from 2012 to 2016, and forecast to 2022.

This report focuses on top manufacturers in global market, with production, price, revenue and market share for each manufacturer, covering
    Leica microsystems
    Nikon Corporation
    Olympus Corporation
    Carl Zeiss AG
    Thorlabs
    Brucker and Asylum
    ...

On the basis of product, this report displays the production, revenue, price, market share and growth rate of each type, primarily split into
    Laser Scanning Confocal Microscopes
    Multiphoton Laser Confocal Microscopes
    Disk Scanning Confocal Microscopes
    Dual Spinning Disk

By Application, the market can be split into
    Industrial And Scientific Groups
    Typically In Material Science
    Semiconductor Inspection
    Life Sciences

By Regions, this report covers (we can add the regions/countries as you want)
    North America
    China
    Europe
    Southeast Asia
    Japan
    India

If you have any special requirements, please let us know and we will offer you the report as you want.

Global Laser Scanning Confocal Microscopy Market Professional Survey Report 2017
1 Industry Overview of Laser Scanning Confocal Microscopy
    1.1 Definition and Specifications of Laser Scanning Confocal Microscopy
        1.1.1 Definition of Laser Scanning Confocal Microscopy
        1.1.2 Specifications of Laser Scanning Confocal Microscopy
    1.2 Classification of Laser Scanning Confocal Microscopy
        1.2.1 Laser Scanning Confocal Microscopes
        1.2.2 Multiphoton Laser Confocal Microscopes
        1.2.3 Disk Scanning Confocal Microscopes
        1.2.4 Dual Spinning Disk
    1.3 Applications of Laser Scanning Confocal Microscopy
        1.3.1 Industrial And Scientific Groups
        1.3.2 Typically In Material Science
        1.3.3 Semiconductor Inspection
        1.3.4 Life Sciences
    1.4 Market Segment by Regions
        1.4.1 North America
        1.4.2 China
        1.4.3 Europe
        1.4.4 Southeast Asia
        1.4.5 Japan
        1.4.6 India

2 Manufacturing Cost Structure Analysis of Laser Scanning Confocal Microscopy
    2.1 Raw Material and Suppliers
    2.2 Manufacturing Cost Structure Analysis of Laser Scanning Confocal Microscopy
    2.3 Manufacturing Process Analysis of Laser Scanning Confocal Microscopy
    2.4 Industry Chain Structure of Laser Scanning Confocal Microscopy

3 Technical Data and Manufacturing Plants Analysis of Laser Scanning Confocal Microscopy
    3.1 Capacity and Commercial Production Date of Global Laser Scanning Confocal Microscopy Major Manufacturers in 2016
    3.2 Manufacturing Plants Distribution of Global Laser Scanning Confocal Microscopy Major Manufacturers in 2016
    3.3 R&D Status and Technology Source of Global Laser Scanning Confocal Microscopy Major Manufacturers in 2016
    3.4 Raw Materials Sources Analysis of Global Laser Scanning Confocal Microscopy Major Manufacturers in 2016

4 Global Laser Scanning Confocal Microscopy Overall Market Overview
    4.1 2012-2017E Overall Market Analysis
    4.2 Capacity Analysis
        4.2.1 2012-2017E Global Laser Scanning Confocal Microscopy Capacity and Growth Rate Analysis
        4.2.2 2016 Laser Scanning Confocal Microscopy Capacity Analysis (Company Segment)
    4.3 Sales Analysis
        4.3.1 2012-2017E Global Laser Scanning Confocal Microscopy Sales and Growth Rate Analysis
        4.3.2 2016 Laser Scanning Confocal Microscopy Sales Analysis (Company Segment)
    4.4 Sales Price Analysis
        4.4.1 2012-2017E Global Laser Scanning Confocal Microscopy Sales Price
        4.4.2 2016 Laser Scanning Confocal Microscopy Sales Price Analysis (Company Segment)

5 Laser Scanning Confocal Microscopy Regional Market Analysis
    5.1 North America Laser Scanning Confocal Microscopy Market Analysis
        5.1.1 North America Laser Scanning Confocal Microscopy Market Overview
        5.1.2 North America 2012-2017E Laser Scanning Confocal Microscopy Local Supply, Import, Export, Local Consumption Analysis
        5.1.3 North America 2012-2017E Laser Scanning Confocal Microscopy Sales Price Analysis
        5.1.4 North America 2016 Laser Scanning Confocal Microscopy Market Share Analysis
    5.2 China Laser Scanning Confocal Microscopy Market Analysis
        5.2.1 China Laser Scanning Confocal Microscopy Market Overview
        5.2.2 China 2012-2017E Laser Scanning Confocal Microscopy Local Supply, Import, Export, Local Consumption Analysis
        5.2.3 China 2012-2017E Laser Scanning Confocal Microscopy Sales Price Analysis
        5.2.4 China 2016 Laser Scanning Confocal Microscopy Market Share Analysis
    5.3 Europe Laser Scanning Confocal Microscopy Market Analysis
        5.3.1 Europe Laser Scanning Confocal Microscopy Market Overview
        5.3.2 Europe 2012-2017E Laser Scanning Confocal Microscopy Local Supply, Import, Export, Local Consumption Analysis
        5.3.3 Europe 2012-2017E Laser Scanning Confocal Microscopy Sales Price Analysis
        5.3.4 Europe 2016 Laser Scanning Confocal Microscopy Market Share Analysis
    5.4 Southeast Asia Laser Scanning Confocal Microscopy Market Analysis
        5.4.1 Southeast Asia Laser Scanning Confocal Microscopy Market Overview
        5.4.2 Southeast Asia 2012-2017E Laser Scanning Confocal Microscopy Local Supply, Import, Export, Local Consumption Analysis
        5.4.3 Southeast Asia 2012-2017E Laser Scanning Confocal Microscopy Sales Price Analysis
        5.4.4 Southeast Asia 2016 Laser Scanning Confocal Microscopy Market Share Analysis
    5.5 Japan Laser Scanning Confocal Microscopy Market Analysis
        5.5.1 Japan Laser Scanning Confocal Microscopy Market Overview
        5.5.2 Japan 2012-2017E Laser Scanning Confocal Microscopy Local Supply, Import, Export, Local Consumption Analysis
        5.5.3 Japan 2012-2017E Laser Scanning Confocal Microscopy Sales Price Analysis
        5.5.4 Japan 2016 Laser Scanning Confocal Microscopy Market Share Analysis
    5.6 India Laser Scanning Confocal Microscopy Market Analysis
        5.6.1 India Laser Scanning Confocal Microscopy Market Overview
        5.6.2 India 2012-2017E Laser Scanning Confocal Microscopy Local Supply, Import, Export, Local Consumption Analysis
        5.6.3 India 2012-2017E Laser Scanning Confocal Microscopy Sales Price Analysis
        5.6.4 India 2016 Laser Scanning Confocal Microscopy Market Share Analysis

6 Global 2012-2017E Laser Scanning Confocal Microscopy Segment Market Analysis (by Type)
    6.1 Global 2012-2017E Laser Scanning Confocal Microscopy Sales by Type
    6.2 Different Types of Laser Scanning Confocal Microscopy Product Interview Price Analysis
    6.3 Different Types of Laser Scanning Confocal Microscopy Product Driving Factors Analysis
        6.3.1 Laser Scanning Confocal Microscopes of Laser Scanning Confocal Microscopy Growth Driving Factor Analysis
        6.3.2 Multiphoton Laser Confocal Microscopes of Laser Scanning Confocal Microscopy Growth Driving Factor Analysis
        6.3.3 Disk Scanning Confocal Microscopes of Laser Scanning Confocal Microscopy Growth Driving Factor Analysis
        6.3.4 Dual Spinning Disk of Laser Scanning Confocal Microscopy Growth Driving Factor Analysis

7 Global 2012-2017E Laser Scanning Confocal Microscopy Segment Market Analysis (by Application)
    7.1 Global 2012-2017E Laser Scanning Confocal Microscopy Consumption by Application
    7.2 Different Application of Laser Scanning Confocal Microscopy Product Interview Price Analysis
    7.3 Different Application of Laser Scanning Confocal Microscopy Product Driving Factors Analysis
        7.3.1 Industrial And Scientific Groups of Laser Scanning Confocal Microscopy Growth Driving Factor Analysis
        7.3.2 Typically In Material Science of Laser Scanning Confocal Microscopy Growth Driving Factor Analysis
        7.3.3 Semiconductor Inspection of Laser Scanning Confocal Microscopy Growth Driving Factor Analysis
        7.3.4 Life Sciences of Laser Scanning Confocal Microscopy Growth Driving Factor Analysis

8 Major Manufacturers Analysis of Laser Scanning Confocal Microscopy
    8.1 Leica microsystems
        8.1.1 Company Profile
        8.1.2 Product Picture and Specifications
            8.1.2.1 Product A
            8.1.2.2 Product B
        8.1.3 Leica microsystems 2016 Laser Scanning Confocal Microscopy Sales, Ex-factory Price, Revenue, Gross Margin Analysis
        8.1.4 Leica microsystems 2016 Laser Scanning Confocal Microscopy Business Region Distribution Analysis
    8.2 Nikon Corporation
        8.2.1 Company Profile
        8.2.2 Product Picture and Specifications
            8.2.2.1 Product A
            8.2.2.2 Product B
        8.2.3 Nikon Corporation 2016 Laser Scanning Confocal Microscopy Sales, Ex-factory Price, Revenue, Gross Margin Analysis
        8.2.4 Nikon Corporation 2016 Laser Scanning Confocal Microscopy Business Region Distribution Analysis
    8.3 Olympus Corporation
        8.3.1 Company Profile
        8.3.2 Product Picture and Specifications
            8.3.2.1 Product A
            8.3.2.2 Product B
        8.3.3 Olympus Corporation 2016 Laser Scanning Confocal Microscopy Sales, Ex-factory Price, Revenue, Gross Margin Analysis
        8.3.4 Olympus Corporation 2016 Laser Scanning Confocal Microscopy Business Region Distribution Analysis
    8.4 Carl Zeiss AG
        8.4.1 Company Profile
        8.4.2 Product Picture and Specifications
            8.4.2.1 Product A
            8.4.2.2 Product B
        8.4.3 Carl Zeiss AG 2016 Laser Scanning Confocal Microscopy Sales, Ex-factory Price, Revenue, Gross Margin Analysis
        8.4.4 Carl Zeiss AG 2016 Laser Scanning Confocal Microscopy Business Region Distribution Analysis
    8.5 Thorlabs
        8.5.1 Company Profile
        8.5.2 Product Picture and Specifications
            8.5.2.1 Product A
            8.5.2.2 Product B
        8.5.3 Thorlabs 2016 Laser Scanning Confocal Microscopy Sales, Ex-factory Price, Revenue, Gross Margin Analysis
        8.5.4 Thorlabs 2016 Laser Scanning Confocal Microscopy Business Region Distribution Analysis
    8.6 Brucker and Asylum
        8.6.1 Company Profile
        8.6.2 Product Picture and Specifications
            8.6.2.1 Product A
            8.6.2.2 Product B
        8.6.3 Brucker and Asylum 2016 Laser Scanning Confocal Microscopy Sales, Ex-factory Price, Revenue, Gross Margin Analysis
        8.6.4 Brucker and Asylum 2016 Laser Scanning Confocal Microscopy Business Region Distribution Analysis

9 Development Trend of Analysis of Laser Scanning Confocal Microscopy Market
    9.1 Global Laser Scanning Confocal Microscopy Market Trend Analysis
        9.1.1 Global 2017-2022 Laser Scanning Confocal Microscopy Market Size (Volume and Value) Forecast
        9.1.2 Global 2017-2022 Laser Scanning Confocal Microscopy Sales Price Forecast
    9.2 Laser Scanning Confocal Microscopy Regional Market Trend
        9.2.1 North America 2017-2022 Laser Scanning Confocal Microscopy Consumption Forecast
        9.2.2 China 2017-2022 Laser Scanning Confocal Microscopy Consumption Forecast
        9.2.3 Europe 2017-2022 Laser Scanning Confocal Microscopy Consumption Forecast
        9.2.4 Southeast Asia 2017-2022 Laser Scanning Confocal Microscopy Consumption Forecast
        9.2.5 Japan 2017-2022 Laser Scanning Confocal Microscopy Consumption Forecast
        9.2.6 India 2017-2022 Laser Scanning Confocal Microscopy Consumption Forecast
    9.3 Laser Scanning Confocal Microscopy Market Trend (Product Type)
    9.4 Laser Scanning Confocal Microscopy Market Trend (Application)

10 Laser Scanning Confocal Microscopy Marketing Type Analysis
    10.1 Laser Scanning Confocal Microscopy Regional Marketing Type Analysis
    10.2 Laser Scanning Confocal Microscopy International Trade Type Analysis
    10.3 Traders or Distributors with Contact Information of Laser Scanning Confocal Microscopy by Region
    10.4 Laser Scanning Confocal Microscopy Supply Chain Analysis

11 Consumers Analysis of Laser Scanning Confocal Microscopy
    11.1 Consumer 1 Analysis
    11.2 Consumer 2 Analysis
    11.3 Consumer 3 Analysis
    11.4 Consumer 4 Analysis

12 Conclusion of the Global Laser Scanning Confocal Microscopy Market Professional Survey Report 2017
    Methodology
    Analyst Introduction
    Data Source


List of Tables and Figures
    Figure Picture of Laser Scanning Confocal Microscopy
    Table Product Specifications of Laser Scanning Confocal Microscopy
    Table Classification of Laser Scanning Confocal Microscopy
    Figure Global Production Market Share of Laser Scanning Confocal Microscopy by Type in 2016
    Figure Laser Scanning Confocal Microscopes Picture
    Table Major Manufacturers of Laser Scanning Confocal Microscopes
    Figure Multiphoton Laser Confocal Microscopes Picture
    Table Major Manufacturers of Multiphoton Laser Confocal Microscopes
    Figure Disk Scanning Confocal Microscopes Picture
    Table Major Manufacturers of Disk Scanning Confocal Microscopes
    Figure Dual Spinning Disk Picture
    Table Major Manufacturers of Dual Spinning Disk
    Table Applications of Laser Scanning Confocal Microscopy
    Figure Global Consumption Volume Market Share of Laser Scanning Confocal Microscopy by Application in 2016
    Figure Industrial And Scientific Groups Examples
    Table Major Consumers in Industrial And Scientific Groups
    Figure Typically In Material Science Examples
    Table Major Consumers in Typically In Material Science
    Figure Semiconductor Inspection Examples
    Table Major Consumers in Semiconductor Inspection
    Figure Life Sciences Examples
    Table Major Consumers in Life Sciences
    Figure Market Share of Laser Scanning Confocal Microscopy by Regions
    Figure North America Laser Scanning Confocal Microscopy Market Size (Million USD) (2012-2022)
    Figure China Laser Scanning Confocal Microscopy Market Size (Million USD) (2012-2022)
    Figure Europe Laser Scanning Confocal Microscopy Market Size (Million USD) (2012-2022)
    Figure Southeast Asia Laser Scanning Confocal Microscopy Market Size (Million USD) (2012-2022)
    Figure Japan Laser Scanning Confocal Microscopy Market Size (Million USD) (2012-2022)
    Figure India Laser Scanning Confocal Microscopy Market Size (Million USD) (2012-2022)
    Table Laser Scanning Confocal Microscopy Raw Material and Suppliers
    Table Manufacturing Cost Structure Analysis of Laser Scanning Confocal Microscopy in 2016
    Figure Manufacturing Process Analysis of Laser Scanning Confocal Microscopy
    Figure Industry Chain Structure of Laser Scanning Confocal Microscopy
    Table Capacity and Commercial Production Date of Global Laser Scanning Confocal Microscopy Major Manufacturers in 2016
    Table Manufacturing Plants Distribution of Global Laser Scanning Confocal Microscopy Major Manufacturers in 2016
    Table R&D Status and Technology Source of Global Laser Scanning Confocal Microscopy Major Manufacturers in 2016
    Table Raw Materials Sources Analysis of Global Laser Scanning Confocal Microscopy Major Manufacturers in 2016
    Table Global Capacity, Sales , Price, Cost, Sales Revenue (M USD) and Gross Margin of Laser Scanning Confocal Microscopy 2012-2017
    Figure Global 2012-2017E Laser Scanning Confocal Microscopy Market Size (Volume) and Growth Rate
    Figure Global 2012-2017E Laser Scanning Confocal Microscopy Market Size (Value) and Growth Rate
    Table 2012-2017E Global Laser Scanning Confocal Microscopy Capacity and Growth Rate
    Table 2016 Global Laser Scanning Confocal Microscopy Capacity (K Units) List (Company Segment)
    Table 2012-2017E Global Laser Scanning Confocal Microscopy Sales (K Units) and Growth Rate
    Table 2016 Global Laser Scanning Confocal Microscopy Sales (K Units) List (Company Segment)
    Table 2012-2017E Global Laser Scanning Confocal Microscopy Sales Price (USD/Unit)
    Table 2016 Global Laser Scanning Confocal Microscopy Sales Price (USD/Unit) List (Company Segment)
    Figure North America Capacity Overview
    Table North America Supply, Import, Export and Consumption (K Units) of Laser Scanning Confocal Microscopy 2012-2017E 
    Figure North America 2012-2017E Laser Scanning Confocal Microscopy Sales Price (USD/Unit)
    Figure North America 2016 Laser Scanning Confocal Microscopy Sales Market Share
    Figure China Capacity Overview
    Table China Supply, Import, Export and Consumption (K Units) of Laser Scanning Confocal Microscopy 2012-2017E 
    Figure China 2012-2017E Laser Scanning Confocal Microscopy Sales Price (USD/Unit) 
    Figure China 2016 Laser Scanning Confocal Microscopy Sales Market Share
    Figure Europe Capacity Overview
    Table Europe Supply, Import, Export and Consumption (K Units) of Laser Scanning Confocal Microscopy 2012-2017E
    Figure Europe 2012-2017E Laser Scanning Confocal Microscopy Sales Price (USD/Unit)
    Figure Europe 2016 Laser Scanning Confocal Microscopy Sales Market Share
    Figure Southeast Asia Capacity Overview
    Table Southeast Asia Supply, Import, Export and Consumption (K Units) of Laser Scanning Confocal Microscopy 2012-2017E
    Figure Southeast Asia 2012-2017E Laser Scanning Confocal Microscopy Sales Price (USD/Unit)
    Figure Southeast Asia 2016 Laser Scanning Confocal Microscopy Sales Market Share
    Figure Japan Capacity Overview
    Table Japan Supply, Import, Export and Consumption (K Units) of Laser Scanning Confocal Microscopy 2012-2017E
    Figure Japan 2012-2017E Laser Scanning Confocal Microscopy Sales Price (USD/Unit)
    Figure Japan 2016 Laser Scanning Confocal Microscopy Sales Market Share
    Figure India Capacity Overview
    Table India Supply, Import, Export and Consumption (K Units) of Laser Scanning Confocal Microscopy 2012-2017E
    Figure India 2012-2017E Laser Scanning Confocal Microscopy Sales Price (USD/Unit)
    Figure India 2016 Laser Scanning Confocal Microscopy Sales Market Share
    Table Global 2012-2017E Laser Scanning Confocal Microscopy Sales (K Units) by Type
    Table Different Types Laser Scanning Confocal Microscopy Product Interview Price
    Table Global 2012-2017E Laser Scanning Confocal Microscopy Sales (K Units) by Application
    Table Different Application Laser Scanning Confocal Microscopy Product Interview Price
    Table Leica microsystems Information List
    Table Product A Overview
    Table Product B Overview
    Table 2016 Leica microsystems Laser Scanning Confocal Microscopy Revenue (Million USD), Sales (K Units), Ex-factory Price (USD/Unit)
    Figure 2016 Leica microsystems Laser Scanning Confocal Microscopy Business Region Distribution
    Table Nikon Corporation Information List
    Table Product A Overview
    Table Product B Overview
    Table 2016 Nikon Corporation Laser Scanning Confocal Microscopy Revenue (Million USD), Sales (K Units), Ex-factory Price (USD/Unit)
    Figure 2016 Nikon Corporation Laser Scanning Confocal Microscopy Business Region Distribution
    Table Olympus Corporation Information List
    Table Product A Overview
    Table Product B Overview
    Table 2015 Olympus Corporation Laser Scanning Confocal Microscopy Revenue (Million USD), Sales (K Units), Ex-factory Price (USD/Unit)
    Figure 2016 Olympus Corporation Laser Scanning Confocal Microscopy Business Region Distribution
    Table Carl Zeiss AG Information List
    Table Product A Overview
    Table Product B Overview
    Table 2016 Carl Zeiss AG Laser Scanning Confocal Microscopy Revenue (Million USD), Sales (K Units), Ex-factory Price (USD/Unit)
    Figure 2016 Carl Zeiss AG Laser Scanning Confocal Microscopy Business Region Distribution
    Table Thorlabs Information List
    Table Product A Overview
    Table Product B Overview
    Table 2016 Thorlabs Laser Scanning Confocal Microscopy Revenue (Million USD), Sales (K Units), Ex-factory Price (USD/Unit)
    Figure 2016 Thorlabs Laser Scanning Confocal Microscopy Business Region Distribution
    Table Brucker and Asylum Information List
    Table Product A Overview
    Table Product B Overview
    Table 2016 Brucker and Asylum Laser Scanning Confocal Microscopy Revenue (Million USD), Sales (K Units), Ex-factory Price (USD/Unit)
    Figure 2016 Brucker and Asylum Laser Scanning Confocal Microscopy Business Region Distribution
    Figure Global 2017-2022 Laser Scanning Confocal Microscopy Market Size (K Units) and Growth Rate Forecast
    Figure Global 2017-2022 Laser Scanning Confocal Microscopy Market Size (Million USD) and Growth Rate Forecast
    Figure Global 2017-2022 Laser Scanning Confocal Microscopy Sales Price (USD/Unit) Forecast
    Figure North America 2017-2022 Laser Scanning Confocal Microscopy Consumption Volume (K Units) and Growth Rate Forecast
    Figure China 2017-2022 Laser Scanning Confocal Microscopy Consumption Volume (K Units) and Growth Rate Forecast
    Figure Europe 2017-2022 Laser Scanning Confocal Microscopy Consumption Volume (K Units) and Growth Rate Forecast
    Figure Southeast Asia 2017-2022 Laser Scanning Confocal Microscopy Consumption Volume (K Units) and Growth Rate Forecast
    Figure Japan 2017-2022 Laser Scanning Confocal Microscopy Consumption Volume (K Units) and Growth Rate Forecast
    Figure India 2017-2022 Laser Scanning Confocal Microscopy Consumption Volume (K Units) and Growth Rate Forecast
    Table Global Sales Volume (K Units) of Laser Scanning Confocal Microscopy by Type 2017-2022
    Table Global Consumption Volume (K Units) of Laser Scanning Confocal Microscopy by Application 2017-2022
    Table Traders or Distributors with Contact Information of Laser Scanning Confocal Microscopy by Region



Latest News

25-Feb-2019 | Medical Devices

Launch Of Symjepi Epinephrine Syringe To Boost The Syringe Market Growth In US

A rising burden of chronic diseases has been observed all across the world, which, in turn, has elevated the usage of syringes. Overall, the global syringe market is anticipated to observe vigorous ...

25-Feb-2019 | Electrical & Electronic Device

Launch Of Xiaomi Set-Top Box To Power The Global 4K Set-Top Box Market

While smart TVs are turning out to be much more widespread these days, a number of consumers still choose to opt for normal TVs and then employ smart streaming set top box with them. Popular choice ...

13-Feb-2019 | Software

Bioinspired Artificial Bug Eye Creation Is A Baton For Global Autonomous Car Market

After looking at the different eye lens structures of the animals and humans, the researchers have decided on creating a sharp image using its design. The compound eyes of the bugs are currently be ...

13-Feb-2019 | Consumer Goods & Retailing

Cafe X’s $12 Million “Seed-1” Round To Boost The Global Coffee Market

Cafe X, a company engaged in building robot baristas, is about to raise a $12 Million “Seed-1” round. Recently, Crunchbase News broke the story when it came across regulatory f ...

05-Feb-2019 | Chemicals & Materials

Clinically Produced Cells Change The Horizon Of Global Bone Cement And Glue Market

The group of researchers from the New York Stem Cell Foundation Research Institute published an article in Stem Cell Research and Therapy where the details regarding the clinical ...