Global Digital Radiography Systems Market Research Report 2017 Opportunities, Product Types, Applications, Forecast to 2022

Request for a SAMPLE REPORT

Fill up your details below and get the sample report for FREE

 Published Date : Nov-2017   |    Format :PDF   |    Number of Pages : 111
This report studies Digital Radiography Systems in Global market, especially in North America, China, Europe, Southeast Asia, Japan and India, with production, revenue, consumption, import and export in these regions, from 2012 to 2016, and forecast to 2022.

This report focuses on top manufacturers in global market, with production, price, revenue and market share for each manufacturer, covering
    Siemens Healthcare
    GE Healthcare
    Philips Healthcare
    Agfa HealthCare
    Fujifilm
    Angell Technology
    Carestream Health
    Wandong Medical
    Hitachi
    Mindray
    Land Wind
    Toshiba
    Konica Minolta
    DEXIS
    Shimadzu
    Source-Ray
    Samsung
    Carestream Health

On the basis of product, this report displays the production, revenue, price, market share and growth rate of each type, primarily split into
    CR Tech Digital X-Ray System
    DR Tech Digital X-Ray System

By Application, the market can be split into
    Dental
    Orthopedics
    General Surgery
    Veterinarian
    Others

By Regions, this report covers (we can add the regions/countries as you want)
    North America
    China
    Europe
    Southeast Asia
    Japan
    India

If you have any special requirements, please let us know and we will offer you the report as you want.

Global Digital Radiography Systems Market Professional Survey Report 2017
1 Industry Overview of Digital Radiography Systems
    1.1 Definition and Specifications of Digital Radiography Systems
        1.1.1 Definition of Digital Radiography Systems
        1.1.2 Specifications of Digital Radiography Systems
    1.2 Classification of Digital Radiography Systems
        1.2.1 CR Tech Digital X-Ray System
        1.2.2 DR Tech Digital X-Ray System
    1.3 Applications of Digital Radiography Systems
        1.3.1 Dental
        1.3.2 Orthopedics
        1.3.3 General Surgery
        1.3.4 Veterinarian
        1.3.5 Others
    1.4 Market Segment by Regions
        1.4.1 North America
        1.4.2 China
        1.4.3 Europe
        1.4.4 Southeast Asia
        1.4.5 Japan
        1.4.6 India

2 Manufacturing Cost Structure Analysis of Digital Radiography Systems
    2.1 Raw Material and Suppliers
    2.2 Manufacturing Cost Structure Analysis of Digital Radiography Systems
    2.3 Manufacturing Process Analysis of Digital Radiography Systems
    2.4 Industry Chain Structure of Digital Radiography Systems

3 Technical Data and Manufacturing Plants Analysis of Digital Radiography Systems
    3.1 Capacity and Commercial Production Date of Global Digital Radiography Systems Major Manufacturers in 2016
    3.2 Manufacturing Plants Distribution of Global Digital Radiography Systems Major Manufacturers in 2016
    3.3 R&D Status and Technology Source of Global Digital Radiography Systems Major Manufacturers in 2016
    3.4 Raw Materials Sources Analysis of Global Digital Radiography Systems Major Manufacturers in 2016

4 Global Digital Radiography Systems Overall Market Overview
    4.1 2012-2017E Overall Market Analysis
    4.2 Capacity Analysis
        4.2.1 2012-2017E Global Digital Radiography Systems Capacity and Growth Rate Analysis
        4.2.2 2016 Digital Radiography Systems Capacity Analysis (Company Segment)
    4.3 Sales Analysis
        4.3.1 2012-2017E Global Digital Radiography Systems Sales and Growth Rate Analysis
        4.3.2 2016 Digital Radiography Systems Sales Analysis (Company Segment)
    4.4 Sales Price Analysis
        4.4.1 2012-2017E Global Digital Radiography Systems Sales Price
        4.4.2 2016 Digital Radiography Systems Sales Price Analysis (Company Segment)

5 Digital Radiography Systems Regional Market Analysis
    5.1 North America Digital Radiography Systems Market Analysis
        5.1.1 North America Digital Radiography Systems Market Overview
        5.1.2 North America 2012-2017E Digital Radiography Systems Local Supply, Import, Export, Local Consumption Analysis
        5.1.3 North America 2012-2017E Digital Radiography Systems Sales Price Analysis
        5.1.4 North America 2016 Digital Radiography Systems Market Share Analysis
    5.2 China Digital Radiography Systems Market Analysis
        5.2.1 China Digital Radiography Systems Market Overview
        5.2.2 China 2012-2017E Digital Radiography Systems Local Supply, Import, Export, Local Consumption Analysis
        5.2.3 China 2012-2017E Digital Radiography Systems Sales Price Analysis
        5.2.4 China 2016 Digital Radiography Systems Market Share Analysis
    5.3 Europe Digital Radiography Systems Market Analysis
        5.3.1 Europe Digital Radiography Systems Market Overview
        5.3.2 Europe 2012-2017E Digital Radiography Systems Local Supply, Import, Export, Local Consumption Analysis
        5.3.3 Europe 2012-2017E Digital Radiography Systems Sales Price Analysis
        5.3.4 Europe 2016 Digital Radiography Systems Market Share Analysis
    5.4 Southeast Asia Digital Radiography Systems Market Analysis
        5.4.1 Southeast Asia Digital Radiography Systems Market Overview
        5.4.2 Southeast Asia 2012-2017E Digital Radiography Systems Local Supply, Import, Export, Local Consumption Analysis
        5.4.3 Southeast Asia 2012-2017E Digital Radiography Systems Sales Price Analysis
        5.4.4 Southeast Asia 2016 Digital Radiography Systems Market Share Analysis
    5.5 Japan Digital Radiography Systems Market Analysis
        5.5.1 Japan Digital Radiography Systems Market Overview
        5.5.2 Japan 2012-2017E Digital Radiography Systems Local Supply, Import, Export, Local Consumption Analysis
        5.5.3 Japan 2012-2017E Digital Radiography Systems Sales Price Analysis
        5.5.4 Japan 2016 Digital Radiography Systems Market Share Analysis
    5.6 India Digital Radiography Systems Market Analysis
        5.6.1 India Digital Radiography Systems Market Overview
        5.6.2 India 2012-2017E Digital Radiography Systems Local Supply, Import, Export, Local Consumption Analysis
        5.6.3 India 2012-2017E Digital Radiography Systems Sales Price Analysis
        5.6.4 India 2016 Digital Radiography Systems Market Share Analysis

6 Global 2012-2017E Digital Radiography Systems Segment Market Analysis (by Type)
    6.1 Global 2012-2017E Digital Radiography Systems Sales by Type
    6.2 Different Types of Digital Radiography Systems Product Interview Price Analysis
    6.3 Different Types of Digital Radiography Systems Product Driving Factors Analysis
        6.3.1 CR Tech Digital X-Ray System of Digital Radiography Systems Growth Driving Factor Analysis
        6.3.2 DR Tech Digital X-Ray System of Digital Radiography Systems Growth Driving Factor Analysis

7 Global 2012-2017E Digital Radiography Systems Segment Market Analysis (by Application)
    7.1 Global 2012-2017E Digital Radiography Systems Consumption by Application
    7.2 Different Application of Digital Radiography Systems Product Interview Price Analysis
    7.3 Different Application of Digital Radiography Systems Product Driving Factors Analysis
        7.3.1 Dental of Digital Radiography Systems Growth Driving Factor Analysis
        7.3.2 Orthopedics of Digital Radiography Systems Growth Driving Factor Analysis
        7.3.3 General Surgery of Digital Radiography Systems Growth Driving Factor Analysis
        7.3.4 Veterinarian of Digital Radiography Systems Growth Driving Factor Analysis
        7.3.5 Others of Digital Radiography Systems Growth Driving Factor Analysis

8 Major Manufacturers Analysis of Digital Radiography Systems
    8.1 Siemens Healthcare
        8.1.1 Company Profile
        8.1.2 Product Picture and Specifications
            8.1.2.1 Product A
            8.1.2.2 Product B
        8.1.3 Siemens Healthcare 2016 Digital Radiography Systems Sales, Ex-factory Price, Revenue, Gross Margin Analysis
        8.1.4 Siemens Healthcare 2016 Digital Radiography Systems Business Region Distribution Analysis
    8.2 GE Healthcare
        8.2.1 Company Profile
        8.2.2 Product Picture and Specifications
            8.2.2.1 Product A
            8.2.2.2 Product B
        8.2.3 GE Healthcare 2016 Digital Radiography Systems Sales, Ex-factory Price, Revenue, Gross Margin Analysis
        8.2.4 GE Healthcare 2016 Digital Radiography Systems Business Region Distribution Analysis
    8.3 Philips Healthcare
        8.3.1 Company Profile
        8.3.2 Product Picture and Specifications
            8.3.2.1 Product A
            8.3.2.2 Product B
        8.3.3 Philips Healthcare 2016 Digital Radiography Systems Sales, Ex-factory Price, Revenue, Gross Margin Analysis
        8.3.4 Philips Healthcare 2016 Digital Radiography Systems Business Region Distribution Analysis
    8.4 Agfa HealthCare
        8.4.1 Company Profile
        8.4.2 Product Picture and Specifications
            8.4.2.1 Product A
            8.4.2.2 Product B
        8.4.3 Agfa HealthCare 2016 Digital Radiography Systems Sales, Ex-factory Price, Revenue, Gross Margin Analysis
        8.4.4 Agfa HealthCare 2016 Digital Radiography Systems Business Region Distribution Analysis
    8.5 Fujifilm
        8.5.1 Company Profile
        8.5.2 Product Picture and Specifications
            8.5.2.1 Product A
            8.5.2.2 Product B
        8.5.3 Fujifilm 2016 Digital Radiography Systems Sales, Ex-factory Price, Revenue, Gross Margin Analysis
        8.5.4 Fujifilm 2016 Digital Radiography Systems Business Region Distribution Analysis
    8.6 Angell Technology
        8.6.1 Company Profile
        8.6.2 Product Picture and Specifications
            8.6.2.1 Product A
            8.6.2.2 Product B
        8.6.3 Angell Technology 2016 Digital Radiography Systems Sales, Ex-factory Price, Revenue, Gross Margin Analysis
        8.6.4 Angell Technology 2016 Digital Radiography Systems Business Region Distribution Analysis
    8.7 Carestream Health
        8.7.1 Company Profile
        8.7.2 Product Picture and Specifications
            8.7.2.1 Product A
            8.7.2.2 Product B
        8.7.3 Carestream Health 2016 Digital Radiography Systems Sales, Ex-factory Price, Revenue, Gross Margin Analysis
        8.7.4 Carestream Health 2016 Digital Radiography Systems Business Region Distribution Analysis
    8.8 Wandong Medical
        8.8.1 Company Profile
        8.8.2 Product Picture and Specifications
            8.8.2.1 Product A
            8.8.2.2 Product B
        8.8.3 Wandong Medical 2016 Digital Radiography Systems Sales, Ex-factory Price, Revenue, Gross Margin Analysis
        8.8.4 Wandong Medical 2016 Digital Radiography Systems Business Region Distribution Analysis
    8.9 Hitachi
        8.9.1 Company Profile
        8.9.2 Product Picture and Specifications
            8.9.2.1 Product A
            8.9.2.2 Product B
        8.9.3 Hitachi 2016 Digital Radiography Systems Sales, Ex-factory Price, Revenue, Gross Margin Analysis
        8.9.4 Hitachi 2016 Digital Radiography Systems Business Region Distribution Analysis
    8.10 Mindray
        8.10.1 Company Profile
        8.10.2 Product Picture and Specifications
            8.10.2.1 Product A
            8.10.2.2 Product B
        8.10.3 Mindray 2016 Digital Radiography Systems Sales, Ex-factory Price, Revenue, Gross Margin Analysis
        8.10.4 Mindray 2016 Digital Radiography Systems Business Region Distribution Analysis
    8.11 Land Wind
    8.12 Toshiba
    8.13 Konica Minolta
    8.14 DEXIS
    8.15 Shimadzu
    8.16 Source-Ray
    8.17 Samsung
    8.18 Carestream Health

9 Development Trend of Analysis of Digital Radiography Systems Market
    9.1 Global Digital Radiography Systems Market Trend Analysis
        9.1.1 Global 2017-2022 Digital Radiography Systems Market Size (Volume and Value) Forecast
        9.1.2 Global 2017-2022 Digital Radiography Systems Sales Price Forecast
    9.2 Digital Radiography Systems Regional Market Trend
        9.2.1 North America 2017-2022 Digital Radiography Systems Consumption Forecast
        9.2.2 China 2017-2022 Digital Radiography Systems Consumption Forecast
        9.2.3 Europe 2017-2022 Digital Radiography Systems Consumption Forecast
        9.2.4 Southeast Asia 2017-2022 Digital Radiography Systems Consumption Forecast
        9.2.5 Japan 2017-2022 Digital Radiography Systems Consumption Forecast
        9.2.6 India 2017-2022 Digital Radiography Systems Consumption Forecast
    9.3 Digital Radiography Systems Market Trend (Product Type)
    9.4 Digital Radiography Systems Market Trend (Application)

10 Digital Radiography Systems Marketing Type Analysis
    10.1 Digital Radiography Systems Regional Marketing Type Analysis
    10.2 Digital Radiography Systems International Trade Type Analysis
    10.3 Traders or Distributors with Contact Information of Digital Radiography Systems by Region
    10.4 Digital Radiography Systems Supply Chain Analysis

11 Consumers Analysis of Digital Radiography Systems
    11.1 Consumer 1 Analysis
    11.2 Consumer 2 Analysis
    11.3 Consumer 3 Analysis
    11.4 Consumer 4 Analysis

12 Conclusion of the Global Digital Radiography Systems Market Professional Survey Report 2017
    Methodology
    Analyst Introduction
    Data Source


List of Tables and Figures
    Figure Picture of Digital Radiography Systems
    Table Product Specifications of Digital Radiography Systems
    Table Classification of Digital Radiography Systems
    Figure Global Production Market Share of Digital Radiography Systems by Type in 2016
    Figure CR Tech Digital X-Ray System Picture
    Table Major Manufacturers of CR Tech Digital X-Ray System
    Figure DR Tech Digital X-Ray System Picture
    Table Major Manufacturers of DR Tech Digital X-Ray System
    Table Applications of Digital Radiography Systems
    Figure Global Consumption Volume Market Share of Digital Radiography Systems by Application in 2016
    Figure Dental Examples
    Table Major Consumers in Dental
    Figure Orthopedics Examples
    Table Major Consumers in Orthopedics
    Figure General Surgery Examples
    Table Major Consumers in General Surgery
    Figure Veterinarian Examples
    Table Major Consumers in Veterinarian
    Figure Others Examples
    Table Major Consumers in Others
    Figure Market Share of Digital Radiography Systems by Regions
    Figure North America Digital Radiography Systems Market Size (Million USD) (2012-2022)
    Figure China Digital Radiography Systems Market Size (Million USD) (2012-2022)
    Figure Europe Digital Radiography Systems Market Size (Million USD) (2012-2022)
    Figure Southeast Asia Digital Radiography Systems Market Size (Million USD) (2012-2022)
    Figure Japan Digital Radiography Systems Market Size (Million USD) (2012-2022)
    Figure India Digital Radiography Systems Market Size (Million USD) (2012-2022)
    Table Digital Radiography Systems Raw Material and Suppliers
    Table Manufacturing Cost Structure Analysis of Digital Radiography Systems in 2016
    Figure Manufacturing Process Analysis of Digital Radiography Systems
    Figure Industry Chain Structure of Digital Radiography Systems
    Table Capacity and Commercial Production Date of Global Digital Radiography Systems Major Manufacturers in 2016
    Table Manufacturing Plants Distribution of Global Digital Radiography Systems Major Manufacturers in 2016
    Table R&D Status and Technology Source of Global Digital Radiography Systems Major Manufacturers in 2016
    Table Raw Materials Sources Analysis of Global Digital Radiography Systems Major Manufacturers in 2016
    Table Global Capacity, Sales , Price, Cost, Sales Revenue (M USD) and Gross Margin of Digital Radiography Systems 2012-2017
    Figure Global 2012-2017E Digital Radiography Systems Market Size (Volume) and Growth Rate
    Figure Global 2012-2017E Digital Radiography Systems Market Size (Value) and Growth Rate
    Table 2012-2017E Global Digital Radiography Systems Capacity and Growth Rate
    Table 2016 Global Digital Radiography Systems Capacity (K Units) List (Company Segment)
    Table 2012-2017E Global Digital Radiography Systems Sales (K Units) and Growth Rate
    Table 2016 Global Digital Radiography Systems Sales (K Units) List (Company Segment)
    Table 2012-2017E Global Digital Radiography Systems Sales Price (USD/Unit)
    Table 2016 Global Digital Radiography Systems Sales Price (USD/Unit) List (Company Segment)
    Figure North America Capacity Overview
    Table North America Supply, Import, Export and Consumption (K Units) of Digital Radiography Systems 2012-2017E 
    Figure North America 2012-2017E Digital Radiography Systems Sales Price (USD/Unit)
    Figure North America 2016 Digital Radiography Systems Sales Market Share
    Figure China Capacity Overview
    Table China Supply, Import, Export and Consumption (K Units) of Digital Radiography Systems 2012-2017E 
    Figure China 2012-2017E Digital Radiography Systems Sales Price (USD/Unit) 
    Figure China 2016 Digital Radiography Systems Sales Market Share
    Figure Europe Capacity Overview
    Table Europe Supply, Import, Export and Consumption (K Units) of Digital Radiography Systems 2012-2017E
    Figure Europe 2012-2017E Digital Radiography Systems Sales Price (USD/Unit)
    Figure Europe 2016 Digital Radiography Systems Sales Market Share
    Figure Southeast Asia Capacity Overview
    Table Southeast Asia Supply, Import, Export and Consumption (K Units) of Digital Radiography Systems 2012-2017E
    Figure Southeast Asia 2012-2017E Digital Radiography Systems Sales Price (USD/Unit)
    Figure Southeast Asia 2016 Digital Radiography Systems Sales Market Share
    Figure Japan Capacity Overview
    Table Japan Supply, Import, Export and Consumption (K Units) of Digital Radiography Systems 2012-2017E
    Figure Japan 2012-2017E Digital Radiography Systems Sales Price (USD/Unit)
    Figure Japan 2016 Digital Radiography Systems Sales Market Share
    Figure India Capacity Overview
    Table India Supply, Import, Export and Consumption (K Units) of Digital Radiography Systems 2012-2017E
    Figure India 2012-2017E Digital Radiography Systems Sales Price (USD/Unit)
    Figure India 2016 Digital Radiography Systems Sales Market Share
    Table Global 2012-2017E Digital Radiography Systems Sales (K Units) by Type
    Table Different Types Digital Radiography Systems Product Interview Price
    Table Global 2012-2017E Digital Radiography Systems Sales (K Units) by Application
    Table Different Application Digital Radiography Systems Product Interview Price
    Table Siemens Healthcare Information List
    Table Product A Overview
    Table Product B Overview
    Table 2016 Siemens Healthcare Digital Radiography Systems Revenue (Million USD), Sales (K Units), Ex-factory Price (USD/Unit)
    Figure 2016 Siemens Healthcare Digital Radiography Systems Business Region Distribution
    Table GE Healthcare Information List
    Table Product A Overview
    Table Product B Overview
    Table 2016 GE Healthcare Digital Radiography Systems Revenue (Million USD), Sales (K Units), Ex-factory Price (USD/Unit)
    Figure 2016 GE Healthcare Digital Radiography Systems Business Region Distribution
    Table Philips Healthcare Information List
    Table Product A Overview
    Table Product B Overview
    Table 2015 Philips Healthcare Digital Radiography Systems Revenue (Million USD), Sales (K Units), Ex-factory Price (USD/Unit)
    Figure 2016 Philips Healthcare Digital Radiography Systems Business Region Distribution
    Table Agfa HealthCare Information List
    Table Product A Overview
    Table Product B Overview
    Table 2016 Agfa HealthCare Digital Radiography Systems Revenue (Million USD), Sales (K Units), Ex-factory Price (USD/Unit)
    Figure 2016 Agfa HealthCare Digital Radiography Systems Business Region Distribution
    Table Fujifilm Information List
    Table Product A Overview
    Table Product B Overview
    Table 2016 Fujifilm Digital Radiography Systems Revenue (Million USD), Sales (K Units), Ex-factory Price (USD/Unit)
    Figure 2016 Fujifilm Digital Radiography Systems Business Region Distribution
    Table Angell Technology Information List
    Table Product A Overview
    Table Product B Overview
    Table 2016 Angell Technology Digital Radiography Systems Revenue (Million USD), Sales (K Units), Ex-factory Price (USD/Unit)
    Figure 2016 Angell Technology Digital Radiography Systems Business Region Distribution
    Table Carestream Health Information List
    Table Product A Overview
    Table Product B Overview
    Table 2016 Carestream Health Digital Radiography Systems Revenue (Million USD), Sales (K Units), Ex-factory Price (USD/Unit)
    Figure 2016 Carestream Health Digital Radiography Systems Business Region Distribution
    Table Wandong Medical Information List
    Table Product A Overview
    Table Product B Overview
    Table 2016 Wandong Medical Digital Radiography Systems Revenue (Million USD), Sales (K Units), Ex-factory Price (USD/Unit)
    Figure 2016 Wandong Medical Digital Radiography Systems Business Region Distribution
    Table Hitachi Information List
    Table Product A Overview
    Table Product B Overview
    Table 2016 Hitachi Digital Radiography Systems Revenue (Million USD), Sales (K Units), Ex-factory Price (USD/Unit)
    Figure 2016 Hitachi Digital Radiography Systems Business Region Distribution
    Table Mindray Information List
    Table Product A Overview
    Table Product B Overview
    Table 2016 Mindray Digital Radiography Systems Revenue (Million USD), Sales (K Units), Ex-factory Price (USD/Unit)
    Figure 2016 Mindray Digital Radiography Systems Business Region Distribution
    Table Land Wind Information List
    Table Toshiba Information List
    Table Konica Minolta Information List
    Table DEXIS Information List
    Table Shimadzu Information List
    Table Source-Ray Information List
    Table Samsung Information List
    Table Carestream Health Information List
    Figure Global 2017-2022 Digital Radiography Systems Market Size (K Units) and Growth Rate Forecast
    Figure Global 2017-2022 Digital Radiography Systems Market Size (Million USD) and Growth Rate Forecast
    Figure Global 2017-2022 Digital Radiography Systems Sales Price (USD/Unit) Forecast
    Figure North America 2017-2022 Digital Radiography Systems Consumption Volume (K Units) and Growth Rate Forecast
    Figure China 2017-2022 Digital Radiography Systems Consumption Volume (K Units) and Growth Rate Forecast
    Figure Europe 2017-2022 Digital Radiography Systems Consumption Volume (K Units) and Growth Rate Forecast
    Figure Southeast Asia 2017-2022 Digital Radiography Systems Consumption Volume (K Units) and Growth Rate Forecast
    Figure Japan 2017-2022 Digital Radiography Systems Consumption Volume (K Units) and Growth Rate Forecast
    Figure India 2017-2022 Digital Radiography Systems Consumption Volume (K Units) and Growth Rate Forecast
    Table Global Sales Volume (K Units) of Digital Radiography Systems by Type 2017-2022
    Table Global Consumption Volume (K Units) of Digital Radiography Systems by Application 2017-2022
    Table Traders or Distributors with Contact Information of Digital Radiography Systems by Region



Latest News

25-Feb-2019 | Medical Devices

Launch Of Symjepi Epinephrine Syringe To Boost The Syringe Market Growth In US

A rising burden of chronic diseases has been observed all across the world, which, in turn, has elevated the usage of syringes. Overall, the global syringe market is anticipated to observe vigorous ...

25-Feb-2019 | Electrical & Electronic Device

Launch Of Xiaomi Set-Top Box To Power The Global 4K Set-Top Box Market

While smart TVs are turning out to be much more widespread these days, a number of consumers still choose to opt for normal TVs and then employ smart streaming set top box with them. Popular choice ...

13-Feb-2019 | Software

Bioinspired Artificial Bug Eye Creation Is A Baton For Global Autonomous Car Market

After looking at the different eye lens structures of the animals and humans, the researchers have decided on creating a sharp image using its design. The compound eyes of the bugs are currently be ...

13-Feb-2019 | Consumer Goods & Retailing

Cafe X’s $12 Million “Seed-1” Round To Boost The Global Coffee Market

Cafe X, a company engaged in building robot baristas, is about to raise a $12 Million “Seed-1” round. Recently, Crunchbase News broke the story when it came across regulatory f ...

05-Feb-2019 | Chemicals & Materials

Clinically Produced Cells Change The Horizon Of Global Bone Cement And Glue Market

The group of researchers from the New York Stem Cell Foundation Research Institute published an article in Stem Cell Research and Therapy where the details regarding the clinical ...